VITAMINA A, RETINOL, ÁCIDO RETINOICO, TRETINOINA (2022)

Esta es siempre la primera de la lista de las vitaminas que necesitamos para el correcto funcionamiento del organismo.

A la vitamina A la conocemos también como Retinol, como Retinal o como ácido retinoico. Aunque son diferentes formas químicas que le confieren a cada una acciones y propiedades diferentes.

Se le llama así debido a que la vitamina A, como tal, ayuda al buen funcionamiento de la retina.

Así, los beta-carotenos, pigmentos que se encuentran en muchas sustancias, característicamente de color rojo y anaranjado, son los precursores de la vitamina A, a su vez, la forma activa de la vitamina A es el retinol y cuando este se oxida se transforma en ácido retinoico.

VITAMINA A

La vitamina A es liposoluble, lo que quiere decir que no se puede excretar por la orina como las que tienen forma hidrosoluble.

La vitamina A se almacena principalmente en el hígado, también en la retina del ojo.

Lo que la hace muy importante en el funcionamiento del ojo. Sobre todo en la capacidad de ver con poca luz.

Encontramos Vitamina A de origen animal.
Principalmente en aves, huevos, productos lácteos, pescado e hígados de animales.

Encontramos Vitamina A en forma de provitamina.
En el reino vegetal en frutos y verduras. Esta forma de provitamina es la que conocemos como Beta-caroteno.

En las formas que podemos encontrar la vitamina A como suplemento, esta en forma de acetato o palmitato de retinol. Como beta-carotenos o en combinación de ambos.

Que funciones tiene:

  • Genera los pigmentos necesarios para el buen funcionamiento de la visión
  • Imprescindible en la reproducción y la lactancia
  • Formación de tejidos nerviosos
  • Estimula el crecimiento óseo
  • Crecimiento del tejido epitelial como las mucosas, piel, uñas, cabello y esmalte dental
  • Mejora la función inmunitaria
  • Evita el envejecimiento al actuar como antioxidante

Los Carotenoides

Estos pigmentos tienen color oscuro y son de origen vegetal. Se transforman en vitamina A. El beta-caroteno es uno de los más de 100 carotenoides diferentes que hay.

El beta-caroteno tiene una importante acción antioxidante, protegiendo a las células de los radicales libres. Evitando el envejecimiento.

Fuentes de beta-carotenos

Son todas las frutas de color naranja y amarillo, como el albaricoque o el melón sobre todo el de cantaloup.

(Video) Vitamina A, Retinol y Ácido Retinoico (Tretinoína) : Mi Experiencia 💕

Hortalizas igualmente de color naranja, como las zanahorias, calabaza o boniato.

Hortalizas de color verde intenso también son fuente de beta-carotenos como las espinacas o el brócoli.

Las carencias de vitamina A pueden provocar:

  • Alteraciones oculares como conjuntivitis seca, disminución de la capacidad de visión nocturna
  • Alteración de la respuesta inmunológica, facilidad de coger infecciones
  • Alteraciones epiteliales en general como erupciones cutáneas y piel áspera y escamosa y fragilidad de las uñas
  • Queratinizaciones gingivales, encías sangrantes
  • Dolores musculares, cansancio o perdida de apetito

Suplementos de vitamina A oral

La importancia para la piel de esta vitamina, es cuando la ingerimos de forma oral.

Es importante saber las posibles incompatibilidades que tiene tomar vitamina A de forma oral, como ya he comentado, esta vitamina es liposoluble por lo que se acumulará en las partes más grasas del organismo. Si estas están dañadas no será recomendable tomarlo.

Igualmente, un exceso de carotenoides pueden afectar a las personas que tienen intolerancia o incompatibilidad por la vitamina A.

Hay que evitar los suplementos de vitamina A, cuando:

  • Alcoholismo
  • Problemas renales
  • Enfermedades hepáticas
  • Toxicidad o alergia a la vitamina A
  • Durante el embarazo

Las dosis recomendadas:

Cuando, en la alimentación diaria se incluyen las 5 porciones de frutas y verduras diarias, se obtienen de 5 a 6 mg/día de provitamina A, esto corresponde del 50-65% de la dosis diaria recomendada de vitamina A.

La dosis recomendada diaria es de:

  • Hombres: 3000 UI (900 mcg) /día
  • Mujeres: 2300 UI (700mcg) /día
  • Mujeres lactantes: 4300 UI (1300mcg)/día
  • Niños 1-3 años: 1000 UI (300 mcg)/día
  • Niños 4-8 años: 1300 UI (400 mcg)/día
  • Niños 9-13 años: 2000 UI (600 mcg)/día

Los suplementos suelen llevar más cantidad de la recomendada por lo que hay que controlar el tiempo que se toman estos productos y es otro de los motivos por los que se recomienda generalmente 5000 UI.

ÁCIDO RETINOICO

El ácido retinoico es otra forma de vitamina A, de hecho es un metabolito de la misma. Es fundamental en el desarrollo del embrión. Sobre todo en el posicionamiento del embrión.

El ácido retinoico proviene de la forma vegetal del retinol o la vitamina A.

El Beta-caroteno, se transforma en retinal, esta forma de vitamina A a su vez se transforma, gracias a un enzima digestivo, en Retinol.

Una parte de este retinol se transforma en retinil palmitato almacenándose.

(Video) DIFERENCIAS ENTRE RETINOL Y ÁCIDO RETINOICO

La otra parte se oxida y pasa a la forma activa el ácido retinoico.

Existen dos formas isómeras del ácido retinoico, la tretinoina y la isotretinoina. Es una forma química diferente del ácido retinoico, esta carboxilada.

Esta es la forma que se utiliza para los tratamientos acneicos y psoriasis.

Esta se puede tomar de forma oral, aunque siempre con estricto control médico debido a los posibles efectos teratogénicos de la misma.

Así como la posibilidad de daño hepático.

ACCIONES TÓPICAS DE LAS DIFERENTES FORMAS DE LA VITAMINA A

La vitamina A de forma tópica la encontramos como retinol, el ácido retinoico y como la tretinoina o isotretinoina.

Conocemos muchos productos que utilizan el RETINOL, como una importante forma de reducir las arrugas, alisar la piel y mejorar el aspecto.

El Retinol como tal, es una forma oleosa, que de por si actuará mejorando las arrugas gracias a su capacidad de mejorar la epitelización de la piel de la vitamina.

Es una forma más suave que el ácido retinoico. Tiene una acción activa frente las arrugas, flacidez y estrías en la piel.

Es un buen estimulante de la producción de colágeno.

El retinol está considerado como ingrediente cosmético y se incluye en muchas formulaciones. No es necesaria la receta médica para utilizarlo. Algunas veces lo podemos encontrar en otras formas como el Retinil acetato, retinil palmitato y retinaldehido.

El retinol, cuando se absorbe en la piel, se transforma en ácido retinoico con sus efectos sobre las células de la piel.

Cuando se usan cosméticos con retinol, es aconsejable utilizarlos por la noche, usando productos no irritantes durante el día.

Los cosméticos que contienen retinol específico para el día suelen tener una dosis muy baja y filtro solar.

(Video) Para que sirve la VITAMINA A 🥕 en el ROSTRO 🤨+ GUÍA COMPLETA [Ácido retinoico - Retinol]

El cual es imprescindible cuando estamos usando alguna de las formas de la vitamina A.

El retinol, al igual que el ácido retinoico, puede irritar la piel, aunque evidentemente la forma trans o tretinoina tiene un efecto mucho más irritante.

Esta forma está clasificada como fármaco y se vende con receta médica.

A diferencia de la forma ácida trans del ácido retinoico, que es la TRETINOINA o la iso-tretinoina, estos dos isómeros, específicamente activos para el acné y para las pieles muy foto-envejecidas.

En otras enfermedades, como la psoriasis, también puede utilizarse a dosis con mucha precaución debido a que la piel esta irritada y extremadamente sensibilizada.

Esta forma del ácido retinoico, está sintetizada en el laboratorio, hacia 1950 en Alemania se empezó a utilizar para tratar las queratosis actínicas y alteraciones celulares debido al sol.

Más adelante, hacia 1969, se introdujo en el tratamiento del acné por el Dr. A. Kligman. En 1975 los estudios evidenciaban sus efectos frente a las arruguitas finas.

En 1988 un estudio de la universidad de Michigan, demostraba la formación de nuevo tejido conectivo y colágeno y mejorar la progresión de las arrugas.

Los últimos estudios como tratamiento se recomiendan cremas en una concentración del 0,05% de ácido retinoico durante seis meses.

Mejora igualmente el grosor de la piel y disminución de las manchas de la piel.

Los productos que contienen retinol, en forma lipídica, no son tan agresivos como la forma tretinoina. Dependiendo de la concentración de tretinoina en la crema actuará de forma más o menos profunda en la piel, provocando un peeling más o menos profundo de la piel.

Cuando hablamos de retinol como cosmético, para conocer que producto es más activo o no, suele ser gracias a la concentración del mismo, pero también dependiendo de los otros componentes que puede incluir la fórmula como la niacinamida, el te verde, la ubiquinona o algunas flavonoides.

Este producto está contraindicado en pieles especialmente sensibles ya que puede provocar una especial irritación, como rojez excesiva o descamación de la piel. Esto es muy habitual al principio del uso del retinol. Generalmente su uso es aconsejable que sea progresivo y gradual hasta que la piel se vaya acostumbrando al mismo.

No todo el mundo llega a habituarse al uso del retinol, algunas pieles son demasiado sensibles.

No es aconsejable usar otro tipo de productos ácidos como los alfa-hidroxi-ácidos. Igualmente, contraindicado tomar el sol ya que puede provocar quemaduras y manchas en la piel.

(Video) VITANOL A | VITAMINA A ÁCIDO RETINOICO, TRETINOÍNA, RETINOL, RETINALDEÍDO ENTENDA TUDO SOBRE ELES!

La vitamina A se oxida fácilmente con la luz, por lo que, cuando tengamos un producto con este componente, es aconsejable mantenerlo alejado de la luz y bien cerrado.

En resumen cuando hablamos de cosméticos es el retinol, retinol palmitato o retialdehido. Su uso es cosmético para reducir las arrugas y estimular la producción de colágeno.

Cuando son fármacos, ácido retinoico o tretinoina, se utiliza para acné, cicatrices por acné, algunos tipos de psoriasis. Algunos médicos prescriben este fármaco para tratar arrugas más profundas y cuando se pretende un peeling más profundo.

LOS TRATAMIENTOS

Retinol

Grandes marcas elaboran productos con retinol.

ROC RETIN-OX CORRECTION, con retinol y ácido hialurónico.

AVENE YSTHEAL, contiene retinaldehido y vitamina E.

RETISES SESDERMA, el retinol se encuentra liposomado, incorpora vitamina C.
RETISDIN D-CONTRACT, retinol, ácido hialurónico y vitamina E.

Ácido Retinoico

RETIN A, tretinoina con 0,025%.

RETACNYL, tretinoina con 0,025%, aunque también se disponen en 0,05% (Francia).

LOCACID, en loción (Francia).

(Video) Vitamina A, Tretinoina, Acido Retinoico, Retinolo e Retinoidi: tutta la verità

FAQs

Which retinol is best for beginners? ›

Jump To / Table of Contents
  • Dr. ...
  • CeraVe Skin Renewing Retinol Serum.
  • Kiehl's Retinol Skin-Renewing Daily Micro-Dose Serum.
  • FAB Skin Lab Retinol Serum 0.25%
  • Paula's Choice Clinical 1% Retinol Treatment.
  • Skinceuticals Correct Retinol 0.3 Anti-Aging Night Cream.
  • SkinMedica Retinol 0.25 Complex.
  • The Inkey List Retinol.
20 Apr 2022

Can I use retinol everyday? ›

Is it safe to use retinol every day? For most people, yes — once your skin is used to it, that is. That said, there are some people who may not want to use it frequently or at all.

Is 1% retinol the same as 1% Retin-A? ›

Although they work in similar ways, retinol is not the same as Retin-A. Some may call retinol an over-the-counter version of Retin-A, but they aren't interchangeable. Technically, retinol and Retin-A do the same thing.

Does 0.1% retinol do anything? ›

A controlled clinical trial published in March 2015 further confirmed results from the older studies, showing that 0.1% retinol improves multiple signs of ageing in eight weeks, with cumulative results over the course of a year. The increase in collagen and hyaluronic acid was especially noted.

Does retinol work under eyes? ›

Should you use retinol under your eyes? Yes, definitely. While it is true that retinol – a form of vitamin A – is a powerful ingredient and the skin under your eyes is delicate, there's no reason why you should miss out on the amazing benefits of retinol.

What age is good to start using retinol? ›

What's the Best Age to Start Using Retinol? Generally speaking, I recommend most people start using retinol in their mid to late-20s, anywhere from 25-30. This is when collagen and elastin production starts to slow down, so it's the perfect time to start reaping the preventative-aging benefits retinol has to offer.

What happens when I stop using retinol? ›

If you stop retinol and do not begin a prescription retinoid, the benefit of preventing acne will go away. The skin cycle of cells being “born” at the base of the skin and moving to the top, dying and desquamating into the surrounding environment takes about 4-6 weeks.

How long should I leave retinol on my face? ›

Retinol (leave to absorb for 10-20 minutes)

“It is important to leave a 10-20 minute wait time before applying the next product. Retinols are powerful antioxidants and it is important to allow it to fully absorb if you want to avoid your skin becoming sensitive,” says Dr Liakas.

Should I use moisturizer after retinol? ›

Regardless of your skin type or which product you use first, a layer of moisturizer should always be applied after retinoids.

Can I use Retin-A on my arms? ›

Retin-A is also FDA approved for acne reduction. It's surprising that many people don't know that you can apply Retin-A to your body like your arms, legs and abdomen. This is not a moisturizer.

Is Retin-A or retinol better for wrinkles? ›

This means Retin-A is not only more powerful than retinol, but it works faster. Improvements in your skin condition should be apparent after 6-8 weeks of regular use.

Is retinol or vitamin C better? ›

While vitamin C is most notable for helping to brighten and improve hyperpigmentation, retinol is typically considered best-in-class for wrinkles and fine lines. And if you really want to give your skin a one-two punch to get noticeably healthier, you can certainly try incorporating both into your routine.

Which strength of retinol do I need? ›

A 0.5-percent concentration is a good baseline.

For beginners, most dermatologists recommend a retinol with a concentration of 0.25 percent to one percent to see results. If your skin is not sensitive, you can usually tolerate something right in the middle; Dr.

Is 2% retinol too strong? ›

Advanced: 0.5% to 2%

But go there only if you absolutely must. Remember, the higher the dose, the higher the benefits, but also higher the risk of irritations. Even if your skin can tolerate retinol well by now, there's always the chance that pushing things too far will cause more problems than it's worth.

What is the strongest retinol percentage? ›

What is the highest percentage of retinol available over the counter? According to Zeichner, most over-the-counter retinol products don't contain more than 1% retinol, though some products have up to 2% or higher. It's also important to keep in mind that a retinol concentration below 0.25% won't be effective.

Does retinol remove dark spots? ›

Alternating glycolic acid and retinol might work well to reduce the appearance of dark spots and scars from acne. But they can both irritate your skin. If you want to try both products, consider alternating days or using glycolic acid in the morning and retinol at night.

Does retinol tighten skin? ›

Not only can retinol help to prevent this from developing, but it may also be able to tighten skin that has already begun to droop. “Beyond sun protection, topical retinoids are the most proven anti-aging topical option,” says King.

Can I put retinol on my lips? ›

The problem is, retinol can be irritating when applied straight to the lips (so keep your prescription-strength cream off your mouth for the time being). But Verso's formula contains a gentle derivative, called retinol 8, which can reduce the appearance of fine lines around the mouth overtime.

How do you use retinol at night? ›

To use retinol cream, apply it to your face before bed, since your skin will absorb it better at night. Before you apply it, wash your face with a gentle soap and wait 20 minutes for your skin to dry. Once your face is dry, squeeze a pea-sized amount of retinol onto your finger.

How do you use retinol for beginners? ›

How to Apply Retinol for Best Results
  1. Step 1: Wash your face and apply eye cream. ...
  2. Step 2: Wait a few minutes until your skin is completely dry. ...
  3. Step 3: Take a pea-size amount of your retinol and, starting at your chin, apply with your fingertips in upward and outward motions.
  4. Step 4: Finish with your moisturizer.

Can I use retinol in the morning and at night? ›

We are here to tell you that you can use retinol (vitamin A) any time you want. Morning. Night. Every day.

Can retinol cause hair loss? ›

Currently, there seems to be no scientific or clinical evidence showing that a topically-applied retinol/retinal/retinoid can cause hair loss, at least when used as recommended or as prescribed.

Does retinol darken skin? ›

These pigmentation issues are also more noticeable in those with a darker complexion. Unfortunately, it can take a long time to go away. Now going back to the original question whether or not retinols and acids can darken your skin. The answer is YES!

Do I need to wash retinol off in the morning? ›

Overnight you've loosened up dead skin cells with your glycolic acid or retinol products, making the morning a perfect time to brush them off.

What to do after using retinol? ›

After applying retinol to your skin (while it's dry) allow it to sit for 10-20 minutes. Mist your face with water or a facial spray, and then apply your hyaluronic acid. (HA serums are most effective when they're applied to damp skin.) Finally, follow your HA serum with a moisturizer right away.

How do you apply retinol to your face? ›

How to apply retinol properly - YouTube

What products should not be used with retinol? ›

Don't Mix: Retinol with vitamin C, benzoyl peroxide, and AHA/BHA acids. AHA and BHA acids are exfoliating, which can dry out the skin and cause further irritation if your skincare routine already includes retinol.

Can you apply vitamin C and retinol at the same time? ›

There's no problem with using both retinol and vitamin C as part of your skincare routine, dermatologists say. In fact, Shirazi calls this combo a "power couple" when it comes to aging well. But you will want to be mindful about when you use your vitamin C and retinol.

What are the steps for face routine? ›

The Perfect 9-Step Skincare Routine
  1. Wash your face. Morning and night, rinse your face water and rub a small amount of gentle cleanser between clean palms. ...
  2. Apply toner. ...
  3. Apply serum. ...
  4. Apply eye cream. ...
  5. Use spot treatment. ...
  6. Moisturize. ...
  7. Apply retinoid. ...
  8. Apply face oil.
7 Jun 2021

Is it OK to use Retin-A on your neck? ›

Yes, you can safely put retinol creams on your neck. “Retinol can sometimes cause redness or irritation as a side effect, but it is worth the effort.

Can I use Retin-A every night? ›

Retin-A can be used nightly or every over night. This will depend on your skin type, condition, and the reason it was prescribed to you. I recommend starting with the lowest effective dose used nightly (or every other night).

Can I use Retin-A on my knees? ›

Similar to the wrinkles on our face, the wrinkles on the knees can also be treated with tretinoin, or more famously known as Retin-A. This gold standard for anti-aging, and typically takes about 8 weeks to 6 months of treatment to see a noticeable improvement.

How often should I use Retin-A for wrinkles? ›

Adults younger than 50 years of age—Apply to the affected area(s) of the skin once a day, at bedtime. Adults 50 years of age and older—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

How much stronger is Retin-A then retinol? ›

Also known as retinoic acid, tretinoin is about 20 times more potent than retinol. It's stronger because retinoic acid is a form of vitamin A that acts directly on the skin to boost cell renewal, turnover, and DNA damage repair.

Which fruit contains retinol? ›

You can also get vitamin A by including good sources of beta-carotene in your diet, as the body can convert this into retinol. The main food sources of beta-carotene are: yellow, red and green (leafy) vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes and red peppers. yellow fruit, such as mango, papaya and apricots.

Which is better hyaluronic acid or retinol? ›

What should a person use between hyaluronic acid or retinol? Hyaluronic acid is best if they're looking to moisturize dry skin, while retinol works better by encouraging better skin by boosting collagen production.

Can I use vitamin C in the morning and retinol at night? ›

Specifically, it's best to use vitamin C in the morning and retinol at night. The reason for that has a lot to do with how each ingredient works. Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and may have sun-protective properties, so using it in the morning can boost your ability to limit potential damage from UV radiation.

How do you start retinol for beginners? ›

Use Retinol only at night and wear SPF every day

Retinol makes your skin more sensitive to UV rays, and sunlight decreases the product's efficacy. Many doctors advise patients to use retinoids exclusively at night and to use a daily broad-spectrum SPF 30 or higher throughout the day.

Is 0.3 retinol good for beginners? ›

0.3% – a relatively low but effective dose of retinol. "0.3% retinol is enough to give a good effect but also enough not to put the skin at risk or irritate the skin," continued Abi. "There are creams out there formulated at 1% and 2% but in my experience consumers don't always use retinol properly.

How do you use retinol cream for beginners? ›

How To Apply Retinol To Achieve The Best Results - YouTube

How do I introduce retinol to my skin? ›

To acclimate your skin to the retinol, start using it twice a week (every three days) in the evenings. If you aren't experiencing any redness or flakiness the next day, you can bump it up to every other day—and then even every day if your skin can handle it.

What happens when I stop using retinol? ›

If you stop retinol and do not begin a prescription retinoid, the benefit of preventing acne will go away. The skin cycle of cells being “born” at the base of the skin and moving to the top, dying and desquamating into the surrounding environment takes about 4-6 weeks.

How long should I leave retinol on my face? ›

Retinol (leave to absorb for 10-20 minutes)

“It is important to leave a 10-20 minute wait time before applying the next product. Retinols are powerful antioxidants and it is important to allow it to fully absorb if you want to avoid your skin becoming sensitive,” says Dr Liakas.

Should I use moisturizer after retinol? ›

Regardless of your skin type or which product you use first, a layer of moisturizer should always be applied after retinoids.

Is 2% retinol too strong? ›

Advanced: 0.5% to 2%

But go there only if you absolutely must. Remember, the higher the dose, the higher the benefits, but also higher the risk of irritations. Even if your skin can tolerate retinol well by now, there's always the chance that pushing things too far will cause more problems than it's worth.

How much retinol should I use on my face? ›

8: Myth: The more you apply the better the results

Using too much of the product can often cause undesirable effects like peeling and dryness. The recommended amount is about a pea-sized drop for the entire face.

What strength of retinol should I use? ›

A 0.5-percent concentration is a good baseline.

For beginners, most dermatologists recommend a retinol with a concentration of 0.25 percent to one percent to see results. If your skin is not sensitive, you can usually tolerate something right in the middle; Dr.

Can you use retinol every night? ›

Retinol can be used every day but needs time to work

After you've built up your skin's tolerance to retinol, it's perfectly safe to use every day. Even users in their 20s can see improvements to their skin when retinol is part of their daily routine.

Should I wash off retinol in the morning? ›

Overnight you've loosened up dead skin cells with your glycolic acid or retinol products, making the morning a perfect time to brush them off.

Does retinol tighten skin? ›

Not only can retinol help to prevent this from developing, but it may also be able to tighten skin that has already begun to droop. “Beyond sun protection, topical retinoids are the most proven anti-aging topical option,” says King.

What should I use after retinol? ›

After applying retinol to your skin (while it's dry) allow it to sit for 10-20 minutes. Mist your face with water or a facial spray, and then apply your hyaluronic acid. (HA serums are most effective when they're applied to damp skin.) Finally, follow your HA serum with a moisturizer right away.

What can you not use with retinol? ›

Don't Mix: Retinol with vitamin C, benzoyl peroxide, and AHA/BHA acids. AHA and BHA acids are exfoliating, which can dry out the skin and cause further irritation if your skincare routine already includes retinol.

Videos

1. Lo Que Debes Saber Al Usar Tretinoina o Retinol I No Cometas Estos Errores I Piel Bonita y Sana
(Fredy Domyl)
2. Ácido retinoico / Vitamina A durante el embarazo
(Ornella Fossati)
3. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE RETINOL Y ACIDO RETINOICO O TRETINOINA
(Anamyself)
4. TODO LO QUE DEBES SABER SOBRE EL RETIN - A (RETINOL)
(Hola Yasmany)
5. ÁCIDO RETINÓICO (TRETINOÍNA): benefícios no rejuvenescimento e no combate ao envelhecimento da pele
(Tudo sobre a Pele - Canal de Dermatologia)
6. VITAMINA A , PARA QUE SIRVE VITAMINA A ? VITAMINA A O RETINOL EN NIÑOS
(Medicina en Linea)

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